Monthly Archives: December 2015

Programme 2015-2016

Tuesday, October 13th Anne Casement: The Buildings of Garron Tower

Tuesday, November 10th Bruce Clark: The Linen Industry

Tuesday, December 8th Launch of Bellaghy Historical Society Website

Tuesday, January 12th Thomas McErlean: The Coalfields of Ballycastle

Tuesday, February 9th left open for members’ suggestions

Tuesday, March 8th Clive Scoular: Easter Rising 1916

Tuesday, April 12th Northern Ireland Screen: 1916

Tuesday, May 10th Alec Blair: Ulster Dialects

Bellaghy Historical Society: November 2015: Bruce Clarke: Linen Industry

Linen is one of the first fibres known to man and was widely used in ancient Israel, Egypt and Ireland.

In the case of divorce under Brehon Law, 5/6 of the flax crop went to the man but the linen yarn or cloth was split 50:50 between both parties.

In Tudor times, before the Plantation, Ireland was an exporter of linen yarn, not linen cloth.

Because of the expanding British economy, Britain decided in 1698 that Ireland would not export wool but linen: 800 million yards per year were needed, 10 million of which came from Ireland. Flax seed came from the US colonies, especially Pennsylvania – some 50/60 ships a year.

The Hugenots who settled near Lisburn grew, spun and weaved linen more efficiently.

By the 1700s, the whole process was household based. The growing of flax through to the finished bleached fabric took a year. The flax was grown in 100 days; then it was harvested, rotted,scutched, combed, spun, beetled and bleached. Cow manure or buttermilk was used in the bleaching process. It was womens’ work until it became a more valuable industry at which point men took over.  As the industry grew, the process was broken into different stages which were done by different classes of society. Beetling was the first stage to be mechanised using water harnessed machinery.

Drapers were merchants of cloth. They began buying brown cloth from the farmers and then finished the cloth for market: this is where the money was to be made. The women spinners were poorly paid while the male weavers faired better.

The late 1700s saw the arrival of cotton. Belfast was more of a cotton city than a linen city then.

1785, the Belfast Linen Hall was built.

1820- machine spinning of flax yarn became economical.

1828- the local Mulholland mill was burned down but was rebuilt as a linen mill.

1830- cotton spinning mills of Belfast converted to linen spinning. The linen industry thrived in Belfast because if the U.S.  civil war and subsequent shortage of cotton.

1900- Belfast was the linen capital of the world: it produced more than half of the linen being then produced in the world.


Bellaghy Historical Society: February 2015: Tom Mc Erlean Land Organisation in Late Medieval Douth Derry 1200 – 1609

Townlands are a legacy of pre-1600 and there are 1300 of them on Co. Derry alone, with 61,402 in all of Ireland. Most consist of  200-400 acres. The townland was the basic unit of administration and landholding.

In Ulster, 16 townands made up a ballybetagh. Each ballybetagh was divided in four. Each of the four units were four ballyboes. Each ballyboe was the equivalent of a townland.

The Baroney of Loghlinsholin (lough of the island of the O’Lins) consists of four territories/lordships. Each territory consisted of a number of ballybetaghs.

In the early medieval landscape there were ring forts or raths, homesteads of the townland owner, which had one or two houses and outhouses. Some raths had round ditches – a status symbol and defence against cattle raiding, e.g., Dunclady, a royal site, has three ditches and Tullyheron Fort, Maghera, which has two ditches.

In Ulster, crannógs were popular from the 5th to the 16th century and were for kings or those of high status, e.g., ballymacpeake Upper.

The Gaelic lordship- O’Neills, Mac Mahons, Maguires, O’Donnells, Mc sweenys, O’Boyles, O’Dohertys…had very little Anglo-Norman influence until 1609.

The agricultural system was mixed: wheat, barley, oats, cows (Kerry and Hexter) (used for milk and for currency), pigs and sheep. In South Derry, pigs (which thrived on acorns) were second to sheep because of the oak woods. No hay was made in the summer but the low-lying grass was preserved for winter use and mountain pastures were used instead. Booleying- boys went with the cattle to the mountains Easter – October.

The Nine years War, 1594-1603 saw the end of the old Gaelic system.

1607-Flight of the Earls


The 1609 Bodley Maps showing the townlands and territories within the Baroney of Loghinsholin was compiled after the Flight of the Earls by asking old men in each area to orally describe where they lived.

1613-Charter of the London Companies


Bellaghy Historical Society: Thomas Mc Erlean Church Island. January 2015

Located on Lough Beg, Church Island, or Inis Taoide, consists of seven acres.

It’s patron saint is Taoide or Thaddews (var. Tadhg). His feast day is 7th of September. There would have been relics of him on the island and pilgrims would have crossed the water for up to eight days before the feast day to get a rub of the relic. The Ordnance Survey 1836 has a drawing of pilgrims going to the island for cures: there is a “bollán” or stone with an indentation where water gathers which was said to have miraculous properties- it is still venerated. People in pagan times worshipped stone, water and trees. On Church Island, pilgrims with eye infections or warts ( in the 18th and 19th centuries, turf fires would have caused eye infections) would have dipped a rag in the water and hang it on the rag tree-it is still done.Nowadays, pilgrims make the twenty minute walk across the marshy ground to the island on the first Sunday of September.

In the 8th and 9th centuries estates belonging to monasteries took up 1/3 to 1/4 of the landscape. There would have been a monastic settlement on Church Island. It would have had it’s own tide mill, a scriptorium- where biblcal works were written and possibly a round tower. There may have been a high cross on the island but it would have been expensive  to commission masons.

Church Island has never been excavated. There is no evidence that the Vikings were ever on the island but the Maghera and Conor monasteries were raided in 832 and 820s, respectively.

There is a double border quay and infill which dates to the 7th/8th century on the western side of the island. There are also traces of a road up from the quay.

In the Annals of Ulster, Gilla Mo-Chonna Ua records the plundering of Inis Taoide by the Ulaid where Mac Lochlainn, son of the High King of Aileach was slain. (Kings often kept valuables in monasteries).

The Mulhollands of Tamlaghtduff were keepers of  St. Patrick’s Bell from the 9th/10th century on which was kept as a relic  on the island.

The 12th century saw the reform of monastical estates where half was given to the church and half to the monastery. The Scullion family claimed origin to St. Taoide and were let stay on the lands. The monastic church became the parish church. The church on Church Island is quite large and is on the site of several earlier wooden ones. The main door is to the south and not the west as would have been more usual. The church could have accommodated 3-400 hundred people. Niches on either side of the altar held cruets. The western window shone light on the altar. The large and small stoned walls are well limed.

Bishop Hervey had the church tower, which is identical to that at the Church of Ireland Church in Bellaghy, built in 1788. Michael Keenan was the builder and Shanahan the architect.

There are no visible graves within the church. The graves outside are to the west, near the altar!, where members of the Scullion (nearest the altar), Diamond and Keenan families are buried. Graves of the 18th century lie on top of those of the 6th century. In 1985, the South Derry Historical Journal published a map of the graveyard indicating 51 graves. There were burials on the island up until the 1950s.

There was a refuge church in case of bad weather at Aughnaheglish- on the mainland.

1306- saw the introduction of Papal Taxation and Church Island was subject to this.

1397- Archbishop Colton’s visit to the island.

1600s- with the Ulster Plantation, the island and it’s monastery were abandoned.

Because of the Bann drainage Scheme, Church Island is no longer an island.

During World War 2, 15/15/42, a plane crashed into the steeple.

Today, the island is cattle-ridden, especially at the “bollán” area. The vegetation is out of control-tree roots are damaging the archaeology and general fabric of the church.

The NIEA is charged with maintenance of built heritage.

Tom Mc Erlean, Maritime Archaeologist, will undertake a survey of Church Island as part of a project funded by The Lough Neagh Partnership.